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The Autoimmune Spectrum: 3 Distinct Stages of Autoimmunity and What They Tell You

June 4, 2023


I'm your dedicated autoimmune wellness coach. My mission is to empower you to thrive despite the challenges posed by autoimmune conditions, so you can lead your fullest life.

I'm Jamie Nicole

The Autoimmune Spectrum: 3 Distinct Stages of Autoimmunity and What They Tell You



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Autoimmune diseases have become increasingly prevalent, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. They occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells, tissues, and organs in the body. Dr. Will Cole, a renowned functional medicine practitioner, has outlined a valuable framework known as the autoimmune spectrum, which helps understand the progression of autoimmune conditions.

The Autoimmune Spectrum
12 of the Most Common Autoimmune Diseases

Having experienced the challenges of living with autoimmune diseases firsthand, I deeply understand the significance of early diagnosis and the critical role it plays in managing symptoms and reclaiming our lives.

Navigating life with an autoimmune condition can feel like an uphill battle. The uncertainty, the pain, and the impact on daily life can be overwhelming. However, I firmly believe that knowledge is our greatest weapon in this fight. By gaining a deeper understanding of the three stages of the autoimmune spectrum, we can equip ourselves with the tools needed to detect warning signs early on and take proactive steps towards early diagnosis and effective symptom management.

Stage 1: Silent Autoimmunity

The first stage of the autoimmune spectrum, silent autoimmunity, is characterized by the absence of noticeable symptoms and a lack of abnormalities detected by conventional medical tests. However, beneath the surface, there may be underlying immune dysregulation and inflammatory markers that indicate an increased risk of developing an autoimmune condition.

During this stage, the immune system starts to exhibit subtle signs of dysfunction. There may be an imbalance in the immune response, with immune cells mistakenly attacking healthy cells and tissues. This immune dysregulation often goes unnoticed because it does not cause overt symptoms or obvious physical manifestations. However, it is important to recognize that even in the absence of symptoms, there may be underlying immune imbalances that could progress to more severe stages of autoimmune disease.

The significance of identifying silent autoimmunity lies in its potential as a precursor to autoimmune reactivity and the development of clinically diagnosable autoimmune diseases. Detecting and addressing immune dysregulation at this early stage can be instrumental in preventing the progression of autoimmune conditions and minimizing the potential damage they may cause.

Common symptoms associated with silent autoimmunity may include:

  1. Fatigue: Feeling excessively tired or lacking energy, even after sufficient rest.
  2. Brain fog: Experiencing difficulties with concentration, memory, or mental clarity.
  3. Joint pain: Experiencing mild joint discomfort or stiffness without a clear cause.
  4. Digestive issues: Experiencing occasional bloating, gas, or mild gastrointestinal disturbances.
  5. Skin problems: Developing minor skin irritations, rashes, or itching.

Stage 2: Autoimmune Reactivity

Autoimmune reactivity represents the second stage of the autoimmune spectrum. During this phase, individuals may experience subtle symptoms that serve as early warning signs of immune system dysfunction. At this stage, the immune system is actively producing antibodies and inflammatory molecules that target specific tissues or organs in the body. These immune responses may not yet result in significant tissue damage or the development of full-blown autoimmune diseases. However, they indicate an ongoing immune reaction and the potential for the condition to progress if left unaddressed.

To identify autoimmune reactivity, specific laboratory tests can be employed. These tests focus on detecting autoantibodies, which are antibodies that mistakenly target the body’s own cells and tissues. Additionally, biomarkers associated with inflammation and immune system activity, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), can provide valuable insights into the presence and extent of immune dysregulation.

Common symptoms associated with autoimmune reactivity may include:

  1. Fatigue: Persistent fatigue that affects daily functioning and is not relieved by rest.
  2. Brain fog: Difficulty concentrating, memory problems, and cognitive impairments.
  3. Joint pain: Increased joint pain, swelling, and stiffness that may impact mobility.
  4. Digestive issues: Chronic digestive problems, such as bloating, diarrhea, or abdominal pain.
  5. Skin problems: Recurring skin rashes, hives, or eczema.

While these symptoms may not be severe or immediately debilitating, they should not be dismissed as unrelated or inconsequential. Recognizing and addressing autoimmune reactivity is crucial because it allows for early intervention and the implementation of strategies to modulate and rebalance the immune system. Lifestyle modifications, dietary changes, stress management techniques, and targeted supplementation may be recommended at this stage to prevent further progression along the autoimmune spectrum.

Stage 3: Autoimmune Disease

The final stage of the autoimmune spectrum involves the development of a clinically diagnosable autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases in stage 3 of the autoimmune spectrum are characterized by significant damage to specific organs or tissues, leading to persistent and often debilitating symptoms.

At this point, the immune response becomes more aggressive and self-perpetuating. Chronic inflammation and tissue destruction characterize autoimmune diseases, leading to a range of symptoms depending on the affected organ or tissue. These symptoms can be diverse, encompassing fatigue, brain fog,  joint pain, digestive issues and skin problems, just like with silent autoimmunity and autoimmune reactivity. Other common symptoms in this stage are cognitive impairment, hormonal imbalances,  or neurological deficits.

Can Dry Skin Be a Sign of Autoimmune Disease?

Timely diagnosis and intervention are crucial during this stage to prevent further damage and manage symptoms effectively. Diagnostic tools such as specific antibody tests, imaging studies, and clinical evaluation aid in identifying the specific autoimmune disease and assessing its severity. Once diagnosed, treatment strategies may involve immune-modulating medications, anti-inflammatory interventions, lifestyle modifications, and targeted therapies to suppress the autoimmune response and manage symptoms.

The Importance of Early Diagnosis

Early diagnosis plays a pivotal role in managing autoimmune diseases. Detecting and treating autoimmune conditions in their early stages can help prevent irreversible organ damage and alleviate symptoms. Early intervention may also improve treatment outcomes and increase the likelihood of achieving remission or controlling the disease effectively.

Understanding Lab Results

Laboratory testing is essential for diagnosing and monitoring autoimmune diseases. These tests provide valuable insights into immune system function, inflammation levels, and specific markers associated with autoimmune conditions. Here are some key lab tests commonly used to assess autoimmune conditions:

  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC): A CBC provides information about red and white blood cells, hemoglobin levels, and platelet counts. It helps evaluate general health and detect abnormalities such as anemia or infection.
  2. C-Reactive Protein (CRP): CRP is a marker of inflammation. Elevated levels indicate systemic inflammation, which can be associated with autoimmune diseases.
  3. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR): ESR measures how quickly red blood cells settle at the bottom of a test tube. High ESR values indicate inflammation in the body, suggesting the presence of an autoimmune condition.
  4. Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) Test: The ANA test detects autoantibodies that attack the nucleus of cells. A positive result suggests the presence of an autoimmune disease, but further testing is necessary for a definitive diagnosis.
  5. Thyroid Function Tests: These tests, including TSH, free T3, free T4, and thyroid antibodies (such as anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies), assess the function of the thyroid gland and help diagnose thyroid-related autoimmune conditions like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
  6. Rheumatoid Factor (RF): RF is an antibody present in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Its presence can aid in diagnosing and monitoring this autoimmune condition.
  7. Anti-cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (anti-CCP) Antibody Test: This test is highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis and helps differentiate it from other forms of arthritis.
  8. Specific Autoantibody Tests: Various autoimmune diseases have specific autoantibodies associated with them. For example, anti-dsDNA antibodies are found in individuals with lupus, while anti-Jo-1 antibodies are indicative of myositis. Testing for specific autoantibodies can assist in confirming a diagnosis and guiding treatment decisions.

If you suspect that you may have an autoimmune disease, understanding the three stages of the autoimmune spectrum can provide valuable insights into the progression of your condition. It is essential to seek medical attention and undergo proper diagnostic testing as early as possible.

Lab results play a crucial role in identifying autoimmune activity, confirming a diagnosis, and guiding treatment decisions. They provide objective data that can help healthcare professionals understand the extent of your condition, monitor disease progression, and tailor an effective treatment plan for you.

Remember, early diagnosis is key to managing autoimmune diseases effectively and minimizing long-term complications. By seeking timely medical intervention, you can take proactive steps to address your symptoms, reduce inflammation, and support your overall well-being.

While facing the possibility of an autoimmune disease can be overwhelming, it is important to remember that you are not alone. Reach out to healthcare professionals who specialize in autoimmune conditions, connect with support groups or online communities, and prioritize self-care and stress management.

From Frustration to Relaxation: The Importance of Stress Management for Autoimmune Disease

By educating yourself about the autoimmune spectrum and actively participating in your healthcare journey, you can gain a better understanding of your condition, explore treatment options, and take control of your health. Remember, early detection and intervention can make a significant difference in managing and living well with autoimmune diseases.

If you are looking for more tips and support, join me over on my group page, The Village – A Natural HEALing Community, to get tons of information and tips to help you take your HEALTHY EATING and ACTIVE LIVING to the next level.


  1. Cole, W. The Autoimmune Spectrum.  https://drwillcole.com/autoimmune-spectrum
  2. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. Autoimmune Diseases.  https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/autoimmune-diseases
  3. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association. Understanding Autoimmunity.  https://www.aarda.org/diseaselist/
  4. MedlinePlus. Autoimmune Diseases. https://medlineplus.gov/autoimmunediseases.html

Hi, Jamie Nicole

I'm a certified autoimmune health coach, fitness instructor, life coach, health equity advocate and your go-to chic for turning setbacks into comebacks. 

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hey there1

Before you dive deeper... hey there! i'm Jamie Nicole

I'm an autoimmune warrior, health coach, fitness instructor, life coach, health equity advocate and your go-to chic for turning setbacks into comebacks. 

I am your committed autoimmune wellness coach, dedicated to the restoration of your well-being. My mission is to equip you with the tools and guidance needed to thrive, even in the face of autoimmune challenges, enabling you to reclaim and lead your fullest life.

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